Mishna. Treatise Shabat

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Номер по каталогу: 02007011
Год издания: 2002
Cтраниц: 438
Weight: 0.61 kgs
Translated by: Veksler, Yeguda
Editor: Ben-Daniel, Dina
Language: Russian, Hewrew
Cover: paperback
Format: 15x3x23


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Comments by rabi Pinhas Kegati

Each is equipped with a glossary of terms treatise, pointer titles and names, and the text of each of the Mishna is also provided and Hebrew. Valuable tutorial for those who are seriously studying the Mishnah, especially for dealing samostotelno.


" Six days you shall labor and do all your work , but the seventh day , Saturday, [ should be dedicated ] Gd , your Gd did not commit any work." ( Exodus 20:9-10 Deuteronomy 5:13-14 )

WORK PROHIBITED IN SATURDAY - the main theme of the Mishna .

Thirty-nine types of work ( listed below in the Mishnah 7:2 ) sages defined as " FATHERS WORK " , ie as main activities prohibited on Saturday, on which they set the rest derived from the first , similar to them in their nature and content, which are called "brood ." However , their status - the same as that of the "fathers" ( " of their generation around like themselves " - Talmud Bavli , Bava Kama 2a) , as will be explained .

The source from which derive thirty nine " fathers work " - a fact conjugation Torah passages that speak of the Sabbath and the construction of the Tabernacle ( Exodus 31:1-17 35.1-4 et seq.) Comparing the prohibition to work on Saturday with a prescription for the construction of the Mishkan , the Torah thus indicates that all work required for its construction , is prohibited on the Sabbath. And that's about it says barayta (Shabbat 49b ) . "Shall be punished only for the work , such as that which was [required for the construction of ] the Mishkan . They sow (plant required to manufacture paints, which dyes wool and sheepskin - Rashi ) , and you do not sow Saturday they pinch, but you do not reap , they lifted the beam from the ground to the cart , and you [ do ] not make public ownership of private possession , "etc. On this basis, the sages determine what work was of great importance in the construction of the Mishkan , called the "father" , and secondary , which had no less importance , is called " offspring " (Bava Kama 2a).

Nevertheless , and " fathers " and " generation " are equally prohibited in the Torah law on Saturday , but a person who violates this prohibition by committing any of them deliberately in front of witnesses who warned him of the violation of the prohibition of the Torah , punishable skill and if not warned - punishment coaches , but if he did it by mistake - he must bring a sacrifice to God hatat .

What is the difference between the "father of " and his " offspring "? This explains our Mishna in the beginning of Chapter 7.1

Treatise begins with a statement setting out the laws of the items from one type to another Saturday of ownership (which is then described in detail in chapters 4-11) despite the fact that the list of the "fathers of the works" ( reproduced below in 7:2 ), this work is worth in last place. There are various explanations , the reason for that (as stated in the preface about how to explain the Mishna 1:1 ) , and one of them is the fact that this work involves a lot of problems to keep the Sabbath . For example: removal of items of personal possession in public , submits them to the private ownership of the public , throwing the object from one type to another possession , pulling it, carrying it to a distance of four cubits in the public domain , etc. ( Ѓameiri ) .

For clarification ban transfer items from one type to another is given ownership barayta (Shabbat 6a Tosefta Shabbat 1:1 ) : "Four [ type ] possessions in Saturday : private ownership , public ownership , Carmelite and ' space ' . What is private possession ? Ditch depth of ten [ hands ] and four wide , and also fence (wall ) height of ten [ hands ] and a width of four - that private ownership in the full sense of the word (ie: EVERY PLACE AREA WHICH LESS THAN 4X4 pALMS , separated from its surroundings TARGET UP 10 OR MORE HANDS ) - it is private ownership . What is public domain ? Wide road ( leading from town to town ) , urban area ( center of trade employees ) , through passages ( Streets, open from both ends and a width of at least 16 elbows ) - is a public property in the full sense of the word. [ nothing ] can not tolerate such a personal possession of such possession in public , and [ nothing ] do not make such public ownership of such ownership in the private and if anyone has made or issued by mistake - is obliged to sacrifice to hatat deliberately - punishable by coach ( if not warned ) or skill ( iF cautioned ) . " However, the sea and the valley , as well as space adjacent to public ownership, which does not pass through a lot of people , and " every place area not less than 4x4 palms and surrounded by a fence at least 10 hands in height, but not less than three - all of them , and the like called Carmelite . status of ownership differs from personal ownership , and from the public , and how to make wise banned anything from Carmel and in private ownership , and the public , and to make anything in Carmel and of public ownership , and of personal. they also banned relocated within the Carmelite any object at a distance of 4 cubits (as in the public domain ) . however , violated this prohibition is not punishable by death , or is not required to make a sacrifice hatat .

There is an explanation that the word means Carmelite kearmelit ( " widow " in Aramaic ) - neither girl nor a married woman ( Rambam ) . There is another explanation that the word Carmelite - cognate with the word caramel , meaning wheat have reached milk stage ( Leviticus 23:14) , which is interpreted as a combination of words tures ( "soft" ) and mala ( "full ") - the there are grains that any juicy or dry just hold it - neither private nor public (Talmud Yerushalmi ) .

" Free space " - a place in public ownership , with an area less than 4x4 palm , and that is higher (or deeper) their environment more than 3 hands - or place an area of ​​less than 4x4 palms and surrounded by what something barrier height and even more than 10 palms. Of " free space " allowed to carry items in public ownership and private possession , and also make items from there to the " free space " . Air over public ownership at 10 hands and is also considered a more " free space " . However , the air over the ownership of personal preserves the status of personal possession to the heavens .

Besides Torah prohibitions related to the work on Saturday , the sages have introduced a number of prohibitions : Shvut ban , ban muktse and don'ts " of everyday actions."

In the Torah it is written ( Exodus 23 12 , 34 21): " In the seventh day - stop work " and sages interpreted so even action which , in essence, are not work on Saturday, you are obliged to stop . On this basis, they have banned a variety of activities in order to become truly Saturday afternoon complete rest from any activity was ( this prohibition is called Shvut ) . These actions - like part of the work , part - banned for fear that the perpetrators are able to seamlessly move to commit the work itself , forbidden by the Torah - as explained in this treatise .

Muktse ban - a ban carry from place to place on Saturday a number of things due to the fact that on the eve of the Sabbath is not prepared to use for purposes permitted Ѓalahoy . Written in the Torah (Exodus , 165): " And then prepared to bring ", hence the wise men brought that any item that is not prepared in advance for use on Saturday - muktse in this day and forbidden to carry it out on Saturday to prevent man to reach this particular violation of the ban on Saturday . Muktse ban includes several types of bans : MUKTSE DUE BAN [ work on the Sabbath ] - for example , tools and raw materials for processing , MUKTSE DUE [ possible] material losses - such items that a person cares only for special kinds of work - such as a knife to make cut or knife for shechita , MUKTSE DUE disgusted - things that cause a person to self-loathing and that 's why he avoids touch , MUKTSE DUE [ NEED THIS SUBJECT tO PERFORMANCE ] COMMANDMENTS - special items intended for the commandments that are impossible to perform on Saturday, - such as the shofar , lulav etc. MUKTSE BECAUSE OF BIRTH [ THIS SATURDAY ] - for example, an egg laid chicken on Saturday, or fruit that fell on Saturday with a tree on the ground. There are other varieties muktse that we will explore in this Mishna .

A is an action that sages banned Saturday despite the fact that they are not similar to forbidden Saturday kinds of work and are not able to lead them. This kind of prohibition was made only to prevent a person behave on Saturday just as he behaves in everyday life . This ban is called the ban " everyday actions " and removed from what was said in the book of the prophet Yeshayaѓu ( 58:13 ) : " If you refrain from walking on Saturday to fulfill their desires in my holy day , and call Delights Saturday, Gd [ day] holy - revered , and you will honor her , [ avoiding ] from being able to go on his way , on how to find [ satisfaction ] and his desire to speak [ everyday ] speech ... " . Sages interpreted , " and you will honor her , [ slope ] from having to go through the ITS " - let your pitch on Saturday will not be the same as in everyday life " ... [ slope ] from being able to find [ satisfaction ] desire yOUR " - do not settle on Saturday that related to your personal interests , and no plans associated with this " ... and to speak [ DAY ] sPEECH " - let your speech on Saturday will not be the same as on weekdays, ie Saturday forbidden to speak about what is relevant to everyday affairs .

The purpose of all these prohibitions - do Saturday " day of complete rest , dedicated [ only ] Gd " (Exodus 31:15 ) . And so said in Yerushalmi (Shabbat 15:3 ) : " Not given Saturdays and holidays for no other purpose except Torah classes ."



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